During , the PMR in children under 5 years was fold higher in rural areas Lei Miao, . More than 98% of pneumonia deaths occurred in 68 countries where .. ; (): – pmid More than 98% of pneumonia deaths occurred in 68 countries where .. ; (): – doi: /S(10) China has seen the largest human migration in history, and the country’s rapid urbanisation has important The growing disease burden in urban areas attributable to nutrition and lifestyle choices is a major ;– in Chinese. [PubMed]. Lin YJ, Lei RY, Luo YX, et al. Mar 27; ( )

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Ageing and urbanisation in China Although China’s population is following the worldwide trend ie, ageing due to reduced fertility rates and increasing life expectanciesthe country is unique in that government policy, namely the one-child policy, has had a key role figure 2.

Am J Public Health.

By decreasing PMR to Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: Possibly, the rise in these risk factors in rural areas is an indirect result of urbanisation. Conceived and designed the experiments: MCH institutions at other levels carry out annually quality control in sampling area.

Please see the S3 File for the flowchart of quality control. The urban population in China has more than tripled in the past three decades and the number of cities with populations of more than people rose from 40 into in The decline in the neonates was the most dramatic when compared to the other two age groups.

Accessed 1 November The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, re preparation of the manuscript. Because of lsi migration of young people to urban centres, people in rural areas are ageing rapidly. Data from and representative sample sites were used for analysis during — and —, respectively. Chin J Vacc Immun. In the s, Beijing introduced policies intended to regulate the migrant population by, among other things, requiring that migrant workers had certification that they were in good health before they could legally work.

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Li B, Piachaud D. J Am Geriatr Soc. J Cross Cult Gerontol. Urbanisation-associated changes in diet and physical activity have been accompanied by a rise in cancer in China, and differences in cancer mortality between rural and urban areas have long been reported.

Infants had the highest PMR, which indicated that interventions aiming at prevention and control of infant pneumonia should be the priority for further reducing PMR in China.

J Appl Prev Med. Efforts to reduce overweight and hypertension and their health sequelae should address the dietary changes and reductions in physical activity that have occurred in both urban and rural populations. During —, the PMR in children under 5 years was 4. Data from US Census Bureau. S2 File Assessment of Causes of Death. Zhu Futang Practice of Pediatrics.

PMR among children under 5 in China during — for original sites. Rural areas can become increasingly urbanised over time and can acquire characteristics of urban environments that promote chronic disease.

Preventing chronic diseases by promoting healthy diet and lifestyle: To strengthen immunisation programmes to reach this population is now a high priority for China’s health policy makers. Environmental Administrative displacement eg, Three Gorges Dam.

Spatial analysis of tuberculosis cases in migrants and permanent residents, Beijing, — National Bureau of Statistics of China [ accessed Jan 18, ]; China’s total population and structural changes in High quality health care as a pull factor driving migration to urban areas has not been addressed, but is unlikely to be a strong driver in view of the challenges that rural migrants have faced over the past two decades with access to health insurance and affordable care in urban areas.

Please see the S1 Fig for the trend analysis for the original sites. The impact of the guest worker system on poverty and wellbeing of migrant workers in urban China. During —, ,ei neonatal and post-neonatal PMRs were Conclusions PMR in children under 5 significantly declined in China from toespecially in rural areas.

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Urbanisation and health in China

Disparities of PMR between rural and urban China still exist. Chang D, Wang S. A nation-wide multicenter year — retrospective clinical epidemiological study of female breast cancer in China. In this Review, we use the criteria that defined urban in China’s census—ie, more than people per km 2with qualifiers.

Remais JV, Zhang J. Hospitals undertake real-time surveillance of reportable ill nesses through China’s internet-based Infectious Disease Reporting Information System—a powerful and robust system, provided that individuals with disease have sufficient access to health care.

The overall proportion of pneumonia deaths to total deaths was also declined from The proportion of pneumonia deaths to total deaths decreased from First, there was no information on the etiology diagnosis of death case, which made it impossible to further classify and code the causes of death according to the International Classification of Diseases ICD.

Urbanisation and health in China

The efficacy of these measures can be seen from the followings: County MCH institutions check and confirm the cases. Open in a separate window. Environmental lessons from China: Inthe World Health Assembly passed a resolution recognizing the role of pneumonia as the leading cause of deaths in children, setting out the goal of reducing pneumonia deaths as a global health priority [ 7 ].

China’s urban area expansion from to The area of China’s largest cities was estimated from Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery acquired in, and Third, the massive rural-to-urban migration that accompanies urbanisation has created particular challenges for health-care delivery in highly mobile and often undocumented populations in China.

This may affect the mortality rate of pneumonia, and we could not estimate the extent.