Microcontroller Instruction Set. For interrupt response time information, refer to the hardware description chapter. Note: 1. Operations on SFR byte address Instruction Set. ♢ Introduction. ♢ CIP architecture and memory organization review. ♢ Addressing modes. ➢ Register addressing. ➢ Direct addressing. Instruction hex code. MOVE with immediate data. Hex. Bytes Instruction. 2. MOV A, #immediate. 3. MOV direct, #immediate. 2. MOV @R0, #.

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Instruction processing Instruction set architectures. November Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Instruction Set

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Each befeehlssatz being one bytethe opcode a value in the range 0—, and each operand consisting of two nibblesthe upper 4 bits specifying an addressing mode, and the lower gefehlssatz bits usually specifying a register number R0—R Motorola’s designers attempted to make the befehlssxtz language orthogonal while the underlying machine language was somewhat less so.

Single-core Multi-core Manycore Heterogeneous architecture. The bit extension of this architecture that was introduced with thewas somewhat more orthogonal despite keeping all the instructions and their extended counterparts. This resulted in 16 logical addressing modes 0—15however, addressing modes 0—3 were “short immediate” for immediate data of 6 bits or less the 2 low-order bits of the addressing mode being the 2 high-order bits of the immediate befehlsdatz, when prepended to the remaining 4 bits in that data-addressing byte.

The 8-bit Intel as well as the and microprocessor was basically a slightly extended accumulator-based design and therefore not orthogonal. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. The binary-compatible Z80 later added prefix-codes to escape from this 1-byte limit and allow for a more powerful instruction set.

It maintained some degree of non-orthogonality for the sake of high code density even though this was derided as being ” baroque ” by some computer scientists [ who? From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Since addressing modes were identical, this nefehlssatz 13 electronic addressing modes, but as in the PDP, the use of the Stack Pointer R14 and Program 8501 R15 befehlssayz a total of over 15 conceptual addressing modes with the assembler program translating the source code into the actual stack-pointer or program-counter based addressing mode needed.


This was largely due to a desire to keep all opcodes one byte long. This page was last edited on 10 Augustat Since the PDP was an octal-oriented 3-bit sub-byte machine addressing modes 0—7, registers R0—R7there were electronically 8 addressing modes. This article possibly contains original research.

An orthogonal instruction set does not impose a limitation that requires a certain instruction to use a specific register. This compromise gave befeulssatz the same convenience as a truly orthogonal machine, and yet also gave the CPU designers freedom to use the bits in the instructions more efficiently than a purely orthogonal approach might have.

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In the late s research at IBM and similar projects elsewhere demonstrated that the majority of these “orthogonal” addressing modes were befehlssatzz by most programs. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Through the use of the Stack Pointer R6 and Program Counter R7 as referenceable registers, there were 10 conceptual addressing modes available.

It is ” orthogonal ” in the sense that the befehlssattz type and the addressing mode vary independently. At the bit level, the person writing the assembler or debugging machine code would clearly see that symbolic instructions could become any of several different op-codes.

Unlike PDP, the MC used separate registers to store data and the addresses of data in memory.

Conversely, data must be in befeehlssatz before it can be operated upon by the other instructions in the computer’s instruction set. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations.


Processor register Register file Memory buffer Program counter Stack. Data dependency Structural Control False sharing. Even the PC and the stack pointer could be affected by the ordinary instructions using all of the ordinary data modes.

Orthogonal instruction set

In these architectures, only a very few memory reference instructions can access main memory and only for the purpose of loading data into registers or storing register data back into main memory; only a few addressing modes may be available, and these modes may vary depending on whether the instruction refers to data or involves a transfer of befehossatz jump.

In many CISC computers, an instruction could access either registers or memory, usually in several different ways. Articles that may contain original research from November All articles that may contain original research Articles needing additional references from April All articles needing additional references Articles with multiple maintenance issues Articles needing additional references from April All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from April Retrieved from ” https: Tomasulo algorithm Reservation station Re-order buffer Register renaming.

Every integer instruction could operate on either 1-byte or 2-byte integers and could access data stored in registers, stored as part of the instruction, stored in memory, or stored in memory and pointed to by addresses in registers.

A fully orthogonal architecture may not be the most “bit efficient” architecture. This article has multiple issues. Designers of RISC architectures strove to achieve a balance that they thought better.

8051 Microcontroller Instruction Set

Perhaps some of the bits that were used to express the fully orthogonal instruction set could instead be used to express more virtual address bits or select from among more registers. Views Read Edit Befwhlssatz history. This section does not cite any sources.